When the total number of films made by women is considered, it becomes useless to determine universally common themes and styles. Such gestures of interpretation and analysis would constitute a disservice to the individuality of each. Would we presume to find common threads among men directors? In spite of the attitudes of male critics and historians, Reiniger, Dulac, Riefenstahl, Deren, Varda, and Chytilova have received the recognition and historical placement they deserve; most other women filmmakers have not. The image of women in film—in front of and behind the cameras—is a subject of keen interest currently being studied elsewhere. The comments and filmographies which follow are not meant as political statements with relation to the women’s movement, although much overlapping of interest is self-evident. Rather, the existence of the women’s movement has generated an interest in and search for more information on the place of women in the arts. It is to this end, temporary as its usefulness may be, that the historical tone of this introduction is directed.
Alice Guy was not merely the first woman filmmaker; she was in fact an authentic motion picture pioneer both in the expansion of a film aesthetic and in the development of the new art’s technical possibilities. Leon Gaumont, who had been producing short factual films similar to those of the Lumieres, assigned Guy to take on the responsibility of making the company’s first films based on fictional material. The problems she faced were not unlike those of Georges Melies, whose chronology in the years before 1900 was roughly parallel to Guy’s. There were no studios in which to film “contrived scenes.” The possibility that an audience existed for such untested kinds of films was unknown; visually-oriented material was found only in some forms of theater or variety (such as Melies’ magic shows); and aside from those forms, what was there in the realm of possibilities that could express the idiosyncracies of a new art to a pre-conditioned lay public? In France, the “contrived scenes” of Guy, Melies and Ferdinand Zecca of Pathe were the premier efforts in the establishment of a narrative cinema. Guy’s importance in this regard should henceforth be understood and synthesized into the annals of film history, and Melies’ ultimate position as the more inventive of the two should not obscure Guy’s prominence as an instigator of fictional film.
In the ten years before her emigration to America in 1907, she tackled a wide variety of subjects: trick films, light comedies, myths and fairy tales, religious re-enactments and surrealist tales of all kinds. She directed most of Gaumont’s non-factual films during this period. In America, she and her husband, Herbert Blache founded their own company—Solax. The available evidence suggests that Guy herself directed every film under the Solax and Blache labels between 1910 and 1915. The subjects of her American films were selected carefully for their market potential, and because of her success in this endeavor she gained a solid reputation as a film executive.
In Hollywood, a surge of women directors occurred during the Teens and Twenties, while during subsequent decades the number waned to less than half a dozen. It is important to note that twenty-six women directors worked in the industrial complex of the Hollywood studio between 1913 and 1927. On the one hand, this phenomenon is a testament to the more acute creative and economic brinkmanship of the Hollywood bosses (notably Carl Laemmle of Universal and Adolph Zukor of Paramount) during the years before an arrogance of collective bureaucracy and industrial conservatism put a stop to a spirit of experimentation. Women directors were hired, in overt gestures of tokenism and a cloud of condescension, as peripheral extensions of the main body of filmmaking personnel—“experts” in the area of what the studio heads perceived to be “women’s themes”: domestic problems, romantic triangles, and the “weepies.” Later, even these gestures of accommodation were retracted as competition for positions within the corporate framework became more vigorous and less consideration was given to minority segments of the collected creative energy. From behind the long desks of production chiefs there came a time when the heat of competition became too intense to contend with risking major consumer products to “fringe benefits.” Thus, while numerous women continued into the talkies in the fields of editing and screenwriting, only one woman director emerged from the Twenties with her career intact, and that was Dorothy Arzner.
The Road to Ruin (Mrs. Wallace Reid, 1934)
Of this group of early directors, some are noteworthy. By far the most prolific was Lois Weber, who had begun as a musical comedy actress and writer. She was distinguished by having attained her own studio, leased to her by Universal in 1916. Lois Weber Productions employed dozens of screenwriters, technicians, and office people, and enabled Weber to produce and direct her own screenplays on a steady basis. Of special interest are her five films advocating birth control: Like Most Wives, The Hypocrites, Where Are My Children?, Ever as You and I, and What Do Men Want? She was responsible for the stardom of Mildred Harris, Chaplin’s ex-wife, and Claire Windsor; and her demise was equally noteworthy: her last film, White Heat, was one of the “Main Street” cycle, a group of films produced by various small independents in the early Thirties banned by major exhibitors and regarded now as the “exploitation” films of their day. “Main Street” films dealt brashly with themes of “girls on-the-loose” and infidelity. (Mrs. Wallace Reid ended her directing career making three such films: Sucker Money, Road to Ruin, and Woman Condemned.)
The Parthenotic screenwriter Frances Marion, who at one time was the highest-paid scenario writer in Hollywood, directed three of her screenplays. She had written many scripts for Mary Pickford, but The Love Light was the first film Pickford asked her to direct. It also featured Marion ‘s husband, Fred Thomson; Thomson starred in her second film Just Around the Corner. Her third assignment, The Song of Love, was done in replacement for ailing director Chester Franklin. There were other less important screenwriters who directed their own films (Ducey, Park, and Ivers, among others) but none attained the relative stature in the industry of Frances Marion.
In other areas, Grace Cunard was a serial star who formed a close association with director Francis Ford, and occasionally co-directed and co-scripted her serials with him. Lucille McVey, the creative half of the comedy team of Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Drew, continued to direct and star in comedies after her husband’s death. Vera McCord (founder of an organization called National Better Movies, Inc., in 1926) had been active in the theater before turning to direction. Jane Murfin had written Broadway hits and screenplays, and she sponsored Strongheart, a police dog whose stardom in the Twenties was second only to that of Rin-Tin-Tin. In 1934, Murfin was made the first woman studio supervisor of RKO. Mabel Normand’s actual role in the making of films she is credited for is nebulous, especially those co-starring Chaplin, but it is certain that she was an inventive force regarding both camera and direction of material. In 1922, Nazimova produced and adapted her opulent version of Salome, and contrary to the credits which appear on the screen, she directed the film herself in all its aspects. Charles Bryant, whom she gave credit for the direction, was her husband.
Dorothy Arzner, who had met a number of Hollywood personalities as a girl in her father ‘s restaurant, entered films through the story department script typist to reader-and then transferred to editing, where she was to make an impact (considerably more of one than as a director) on some important films. At Realart, the Paramount subsidiary, she was put in charge of editing and production in 1922. She edited and shot matching shots of Valentino for Blood and Sand, and she cut Cruze’s The Covered Wagon and Old Ironsides, as well as four dozen other films.
As a director, Arzner was more interesting thematically than stylistically. She concentrated on strong independent female characters, and her choice of stars, or in some cases their choice of her, reflects this. Clara Bow, Ruth Chatterton, Claudette Colbert, Sylvia Sidney, Katharine Hepburn, Rosalind Russell, and Joan Crawford were personalities linked by a common spirit of independence in the face of oppressive movie-men. Arzner was the only director who worked with all of them. Her films, however, were not necessarily concerned with domestic matters. In Christopher Strong, Hepburn is an airplane pilot who determines that her flying, rather than devotion to the man she loves, has become of liberating importance to her. In Arzner’s films, a reversal of some common traits in films directed by men takes place. Scenes involving women are generally complex, thoughtful and multi-dimensional, whereas her male characters are relatively barren and played with considerable ham. As a matter of fact, Arzner’s films are invariably uplifted when she takes her camera outside the house and becomes involved with objects, landscape, and movement. In these cases, where cutting is not dependent on lines of dialogue, her strength as an editor surfaces. (It is interesting to note that such is not the case with Ida Lupino, whose films and television programs never break away from a strait jacket of words.)
Ida Lupino on the set of Never Fear (Ida Lupino, 1950)
In Europe before the advent of sound, a most interesting melange of women directors was operating. In Czechloslovakia, the stage actress Zet Molas disavowed the theater and experimented with forms otherwise unseen in that country before Gustav Machaty’s Ecstasy. Thea Cervankova concentrated on adapting established Czech novels and national plays; and Hedvika Raabeova, barely ten years after the formation of a Czech film industry, made a solitary short, Ada, in 1919.
In Sweden, Anna Hoffman-Uddgren made six films over a two year span (1910-1911), including an early adaptation of Strindberg’s Miss Julie, and became the second woman director in film history. Eight years later Pauline Brunius began a series of short comedies which were most often seen in theaters as short subjects with the major works of Stiller and Sjostrom.
The French actress and producer, Marie-Louise Iribe, had made Jacques Feyder’s L’Atlantide before coming to America for a short time in 1922. Returning to France, she resumed her producing role, and in 1928 she directed one of the oddities of the silent French cinema, Hara-Kiri, the story of a French woman who mourns the death of her Japanese lover by contemplating harakiri, only to resort to suicide by shooting beside her lover’s coffin. With her film, L’ami Fritz, in 1918, Suzanne Devoyod embarked on an effort to gain entry into American as well as French directors’ circles, but financiers would not oblige her, and it remained her only directorial effort. Marie Epstein, Jean Epstein’s wife, co-directed four films with Jean Benoit-Levy including the celebrated La Mater Nelle. Her last film, La Grande Esperance, was a documentary on the peaceful uses of atomic energy.
In Great Britain, three women directors made early appearances. Dinah Shurey directed Last Port in 1929. Mary Field, who directed documentaries as early as the mid-Twenties, headed numerous important instructional and children’s films organizations in the government, and after 1944 she directed Rank’s Children’s Film Division. The British novelist, Elinor Glyn, made two feature films in 1930, Knowing Men and The Price of Things, and stalwartly represented a primary link between the British cinema and early 20th-century English Romantic literatures. Her films, like her novels, were irreverent, witty, and easily forgotten.
Aimee Navarra’s Coeurs Belges (1918) was a short nationalistic film concerning the devestation of the war, and appears to be the earliest effort by a woman in Belgium, while in Spain the only film known to be directed by a woman was The Wild Cat, a short made by Rosario Pi in 1936. In Argentina, there was Renee Oro, who filmed the prize winning Argentina around 1930.
In the Soviet Union, where relatively large numbers of women worked in the post-Revolution film industry, Margarita Barskaya wrote and directed a popular children’s film, Torn Shoes. The Brumberg sisters, pioneer animators, began their forty-five year collaboration in 1929 with The Young Samoyed. Olga Chekhov (the playwright’s niece) was a comedienne who roamed Europe during the Twenties appearing in many films of established directors, including Rene Clair’s The Italian Straw Hat. In London, she established her own small production company and directed two comedies before returning to acting the following year.
Olga Preobrazhenskaya was an important actress in the Czarist cinema before directing her first film in 1915. In lieu of the structure of the Russian and Soviet film industries, her trial run at directing was tentative and liable to refusal the next time around, but her three films for children were appreciated. In 1927 she made her masterpiece, Women of Ryazan, a rural tale of moral delicacy, in which pre-Kuleshovian notions of narrative were revived and stood their final ground in the face of an altered Soviet cinema.
Esther Shub, on the other hand, was an innovator, if not the founder, of an entire sub-genre: the compilation film. A film editor by profession, she embarked on the idea of recreating an historical film document of the decline of the Czarist regime from newsreel footage hitherto scattered around the museums and warehouses of Moscow. With considerable difficulty, she gained permission to undergo the project as an official showpiece of the tenth anniversary of the February Revolution. This mammoth undertaking resulted in The Fall of the Romanov Dynasty and, shortly thereafter, The Great Road, which was commissioned for the anniversary of the October Revolution. For the first time, films of re-creation, representation and emotion were created from recorded glimpses of actual events.
Shub’s influence on the documentary film was central. By way of the grammatical analogy, it is evident that Robert Flaherty directed the viewer into the personal arena of first-person subjectivity, Lumiere’s scenes remain remote accounts—third-person objectivity—and Shub’s compilation films were meant to involve the viewer with scenes of himself: the viewer and the viewed, one in the same. Her films were not necessarily accurate, nor were they designed for any audience other than a contemporary one. But her influence on theatrical newsreels, propaganda films and the mass of television programming based on the compilation idea is beyond estimation.
A large proportion of women active in filmmaking before the Sixties worked in areas other than the live-action, feature- length narrative film. Although the specific reasons for this differ from one individual to the other, the general pattern is attributable to difficulties women have had in gaining access to the strings of economic power, or, as in many cases where national film industries exist, to the strings of bureaucratic power. Even Leni Riefenstahl, perhaps the greatest documentarist in the history of the cinema, was personally chosen and sanctioned by Hitler primarily because her athleticism and beauty epitomized his idea of the new German, and only secondarily on the basis of her work in films prior to their meeting. Julia Solntseva, although she came to evoke a milder style of her own in later years, wrestled through her first twenty years in the cinema on the coattails of her director-husband, Alexander Dovzhenko. Dozens of other wifely collaborators did the same. More subtle, although no less important, obstacles lay in the way of women hoping to direct or take charge of productions: the myth of the heavy camera; the myth of the female “General” on the set; the myth of male intelligence; and the fact of little or no precedent.
Thus we find in most major countries considerable numbers of women making animated films, some of whom were quite important. The Austrian Lotte Reiniger was the pioneer-creator of the animated silhouette film. Her films were quaint, neat and often recreated famous tales and myths for children. For fifty years, she has been the undisputed master of her genre. Hermina Tyrlova, who along with JiriTrnka brought fame and respect to the Czechoslovak puppet film, began her career in the Twenties. Her films were also made for audiences of children. Joy Batchelor is one half of the most successful animation team in the world. Halas and Batchelor’s more personal films are hard to analyze collectively, but this collaboration has been responsible for a wide variety of technical innovations. Yvonne Andersen established her niche with the founding in 1954 of a school in Lexington, Massachusetts, for teaching film animation to children. Under her supervision, the students have made hundreds of short films, many of them shown at festivals around the world. Claire Parker, an American expatriate in France, has collaborated for more than thirty years on most of the pin-animation films of Alexander Alexe ieff. Mary Ellen Bute experimented with abstract forms of animation dating from the mid-Thirties.
Experimenting with new forms of live-action films has been perhaps the most durable impression women filmmakers have made, up to now at least, on the cinema. The surrealist film, for example, found its first consummate expression in Germaine Dulac’s La coquille et le clergyman, whose script by Antonin Artaud created such tension with Dulac’s directorial sensitivities that the viewer was left shattered by the visual meeting of a high-and-low-pressure collision. Dulac, an active feminist, was a pivotal figure in the avant-garde movement of France in the Twenties, among whose lasting testaments was a cinema of introspection in which reason was held to be man ‘s last hope.
In America, Maya Deren, whose life and films have been described eloquently elsewhere, opened the door to the New American Cinema, followed by Sarah Arledge, Helen Levitt, Shirley Clarke, Marie Menken, and later many others. Today, that small door has long since been broken down, and the flood gates that closed opportunity to women filmmakers appear secure no more.
Elaine May on the set of A New Leaf (Elaine May, 1970)
Women filmmakers who fit into the following groups have been omitted from these filmographies: those who began making short or independent films after 1964; those who have worked solely in either television or industrial film production; and some thirty documentarists (mainly from Eastern Europe) who have been cut for reasons of space. Beyond these limitations, I have tried to list all women film directors. The directors’ writing and acting credits are included except in the case of films directed by others; their producing, editing, cinematographic and other credits are not included. Other acting credits of well-known or pertinent performers are given, as well as the distributors of the commercial American films.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to Annette Michelson, Regina McShane, and the members of the Seminar on Women in Film, New York University; to Jonas Mekas and the staff of Anthology Film Archives; and to the staffs of the New York Public Library’s Theatre Collection and the Museum of Modern Art’s Department of Film. –Richard Henshaw
d = directed
co-d = co-directed
scr = screenwriter
co-scr = co-screenwriter
Original production company are occasionally abbreviated but only after being used completely in that entry.
YVONNE ANDERSEN USA Founded Yellow Ball workshop in 1954 and since has supervised hundreds of animated films made by children.
MARY ANDJAPARIDZE USSR 1960 Aniuta also scr.
SARAH ARLEDGE USA 1947 Introspection (short).
DOROTHY ARZNER USA (1900- ) 1927 Fashions For Women Paramount cast: Esther Ralston; 1927 Ten Modern Commandments Par cast: Esther Ralston; Get Your Man Par cast: Clara Bow; 1928 Manhattan Cocktail Par cast: Nancy Carroll; 1929 Wild Party Par cast: Clara Bow, Fredric March; 1930 Sarah and Son Par cast: Ruth Chatterton, Fredric March; Paramount On Parade Par (one of ten directors) all-star cast; Anybody’s Woman Par cast: Ruth Chatterton, Clive Brook; 1931 Honor Among Lovers Par cast: Claudette Colbert, Fredric March; Working Girls Par cast: Paul Lukas, Frances Dee; 1932 Merrily We Go to Hell Par cast: Sylvia Sidney, Fredric March; 1933 Christopher Strong RKO cast: Katharine Hepburn, Colin Clive; 1934 Nana United Artists cast: Anna Sten; 1936 Craig’s Wife Columbia cast: Rosalind Russell; 1937 The Bride Wore Red MGM cast: Joan Crawford, Franchot Tone; 1940 Dance Girl Dance RKO cast: Maureen O’Hara, Louis Hayward; 1943 First Comes Courage Columbia cast: Merle Oberon, Brian Aherne; 1944 training films for Women’s Army Corps.
JACQUELINE AUDRY France (1908- ) 1943 Les Chevaux du Vorcors (short); 1945 Les Malheurs de Sophie; 1948 Sombre Dimanche; 1949 Gigi cast: Daniele Delorme; 1950 Minne, I’ingenue libertine cast: Daniele Delorme; 1951 Olivia [Pit of Loneliness] cast: Edwige Feuillere, Simone Simon; 1952 La Caroque Blonde; 1954 Huis Clos cast: Arletty; 1956 Mitsou ou Comment l’Esprit Vient aux Filles; 1957 La Garçonne; 1958 C’est la Faute d’Adam; 1959 L’Ecole des Cocottes [Six Easy Lessons] cast: Dany Robin ; 1960 Le Secret du Chevalier d’Eon; 1962 Les Petits Matins [Girl On The Road]; 1963 Cadavres en Vacances; 1966 Fruits Amers; 1970 Lis de Mer.
RUTH ANN BALDWIN USA 1915 The Black Page Universal (short); The Double Deal in the Park U (short) also scr; An Arrangement With Fate U (short) also scr; 1916 The Recoiling Vengeance U also scr; 1917 The Butterfly U also scr; Is Money All? U also scr; It Makes a Difference U also scr; The Black Mantilla Gold Seal; When Liz Lets Loose U; The Woman Who Could Not Pay U also scr; The Rented Man U also scr; A Soldier Of the Legion U also scr; The Storm Women U also scr; A Wife On Trial U; Three Women Of France U; Twixt Love and Desire U (short) also scr; 49-17 U; 1918 The Mother’s Call U; 1919 Broken Commandments Fox also scr; 1920 The Devil’s Ripple Fox also scr; 1921 The Marriage Of William Ashe Metro also scr; Puppets Of Fate Metro.
MARGARITA BARSKAYA USSR 1933 Torn Shoes also scr.
MARIA BASAGLIA Italy 1954 Sua Altezza Ha Detto: No! also co-scr; 1956 Sangue di Zingara also co-scr.
JOY BATCHELOR Great Britain (1914- ) All co-d: John Halas. Unless otherwise noted, all animation. Over 950 films of which the following are best known: 1941 The Pocket Cartoon; 1942 Dustbin Parade; 1943 Abu (series of 4); 1944 Six Little Jungle Boys; 1945 Handling Ships (feature docu); 1946 Old Wives’ Tales; 1947 Heave Away My Johnny; 1948 Robinson Charley (series of 7); 1949 First Line Of Defence; Fly About the House; 1950 As Old As the Hills; The Magic Canvas; 1951 Poet and Painter (series of 4); John Gilpin; Catalysis; Submarine Control; 1952 The Figurehead; 1953 The Owl and the Pussycat (series of 30); The Moving Spirit; Coastal Navigation; 1954 Animal Farm (feature animation); Power To Fly; 1955 Speed the Plough; Cinerama Holiday (animation sequence in live-action film); 1956 History Of the Cinema; The World Of Little Ig; To Your Health; The Candlemaker; 1957 The Guardsman; All Lit Up; 1958 The Christmas Visitor; 1959 The Energy Picture; 1960 Dam the Delta; Habatales (series of 3); Foo Foo (series of 33); Snip and Snap (series of 26); The History Of Inventions; 1961 The Colombo Plan; For Better Or Worse; The Monster Of Highgate Ponds (feature live-action); 1962 Hamilton the Musical Elephant; 1963 Automania 2000; Is There Intelligent Life On Earth? (feature live-action); 1964 Men In Science; 1965 Hoffnung (series of 3); 1966 Ruddigore (feature animation); The Anger Of Achilles (background to stage performance); 1969 Ellipse & Circles; Pole & Polar; 1970 The Five (J.B. alone).
RADKA BATCHVAROVA Bulgaria, all animation: 1958 The Mouse and the Crayon; 1960 The Snowman; 1964 Fable; 1965 The Little Star.
HALINA BIELINSKA Poland 1958 Hanging the Guard (animation) co-d: Wlodzimierz Haupe; Zmiana Warty (animation) co-d: W.H.; 1960 The Circus Under the Stars (animation) co-d: W.H.; 1961 Lucky Tony co-d: W.H .; 1963 Godzina Pasowes Rozy (animation).
ELISABETA BOSTAN Rumania (1931- ) 1955-60 The Brood Hen and Her Golden Chicks (short); Three Rumanian Dances (short); The Hora Dance (short); Naica and the Little Fish (short); Naica and the Stork (short); Naica and the Squirrels (short); Naica Leaves For Bucharest (short); 1962 The Kid; 1964 Recollections From Childhood; 1968 Youth Without Old Age.
MURIEL BOX Great Britain (1905-1952) The Happy Family also co-scr cast: Stanley Holloway; 1953 Street Corner [US: Both Sides Of the Law] cast: Terrence Morgan, Peggy Cummins; A Prince For Cynthia (short); 1954 To Dorothy a Son cast: John Gregson, Peggy Cummins; The Beachcomber cast: Glynis Johns; 1955 Simon and Laura cast: Peter Finch, Kay Kendall ; 1956 Eyewitness cast: Michael Craig ; 1957 The Passionate Stranger [US: A Novel Affair] cast: Ralph Richardson, Margaret Leighton ; 1958 The Truth About Women cast: Laurence Harvey, Mai Zetterling; 1959 Subway in the Sky; This Other Eden; 1960 Too Young To Love cast: Thomas Mitchell; 1962 The Piper’s Tune; 1964 Rattle Of a Simple Man cast: Diane Cilento.
ADA BOYADGIEVA Bulgaria (1927- ) 1956 How Tales Come To Life (documentary); 1958 Songs and Dances By the River Mesta (documentary); 1963 Story Books (documentary); Palmira (documentary); A Trip (documentary) ; 1965 Return Of the Ikons (documentary); 1967 Return ; 1969 I Dissent (documentary) with Y. Vazov; 1970 The Prisoner Of Brendonk (documentary); 1971 Dignity (documentary).
VALENTINA & ZENAJEDA BRUMBERG USSR (1899- ) (1900- ) All animation : 1929 The Young Samoyed; 1961 Great Troubles; 1963 Three Fat Men; 1964 The Brave Little Tailor; 1965 An Hour Until the Meeting; 1966 Golden Stepmother; 1967 The Little Time Machine; 1969 Big Misadventures.
PAULINE BRUNIUS Sweden (1881-1954) All shorts: 1919 Stenaldersmannen; 1920 Trollslandan; De Lackra Skaldjuren; Ombytta Roller; 1921 Ryggskott; Lev Livet Leende.
JANE BRUNO-RUBY France 1924 La Cabane d’Amour; c. 1934 Indiens, mes Freres co-d : Jummy Berliet; Tu m’Enverras des Cartes Postales; 1937 Promenade en Chine (documentary).
NATALIA BRZOZOWSKA Poland 1949 Music. SOLANGE BUSSI France (1907- ) 1931 La Vagabonde; 1932 Mon Amant l’Assassin; 1952 Koenigsmark.
MARY ELLEN BUTE USA (1909- ) Unless otherwise noted all animation: 1934 Synchronization co-d: Lewis Jacobs & Joseph Schillinger; 1936 Rhythm In Light; Anitra ‘s Dance; Synchrony No. 2; 1937 Evening Star; 1938 Parabola; 1940 Escape; Toccata and Fugue; 1941 Tarantella; Spool Sport; 1953 Polka-Graph; 1954 Abstronics; Moon Contrast; 1956 The Boy Who Saw Through ; 1958 Color Rhapsody; 1964 Finnegan ‘s Wake (feature live-action); The Skin Of Our Teeth (projected feature live-action).
LILIANA CAVANI Italy (1936- 1960-64) TV documentaries; 1966 Francesco d’Assisi [Francis Of Assisi] also co-scr; 1968 Galileo also co-scr; 1970 I cannibali [The Year Of the Cannibals] also co-scr cast: Pierre Clementi, Britt Eklund
THEA CERVENKOVA Czechoslovakia All shorts: 1920 Babicka; The Thief; 1921 Bludicka; 1922 Mayday.
DENISE CHARVEIN France All animation ; co-d : Yon a Friedman: 1961 Les Gazelles; Sedimwe; La Hyene et le Chat Sauvage.
OLGA CHEKOV USSR (1897- ) c. 1928 La Victorieuse (in Great Britain); Poliche (in Great Britain).
MRS. GEORGE RANDOLPH CHESTER USA All co-d: George Randolph Chester; all Vita graph: 1917 The Wreck; 1918 The Sins Of Mother also co-scr; 1919 Vengeance On Demand also co-scr; 1920 Slaves Of Pride also co-scr; 1921 The Son Of Wallingford.
VERA CHYTILOVA Czechoslovakia (1929- ) 1957 Three Men Missing (short) also scr; 1959 Green Roads (short) also scr; 1961 The Ceiling (medium length) also co-scr; 1962 A Bag Of Fleas (documentary) also scr; 1963 Something Different also scr; 1965 Pearls Of the Deep (one episode: ‘The World Cafeteria ‘) also co-scr; 1966 Daisies also co-scr; 1969 The Fruit Of Paradise also co-scr.
SHIRLEY CLARKE USA (1925- ) 1953 Dance In the Sun (short); 1954 In Paris Parks (short); 1955 Bullfight (short); 1957 Moment In Love (short); 1958 Brussels ‘Loops’ (12 shorts ); Bridges-Go-Round (short); 1959 Skyscraper (short) co-d : Willard Van Dyke; 1960 Scary Time (short); The Connection ; 1963 The Cool World; 1964 Robert Frost-A Love Letter To the World (documentary); 1967 Man In the Polar Regions (documentary); Portrait Of Jason (feature documentary); 1968 experimental videotapes.
ELSA COLFACH Sweden (1929- 1960) Susanne.
NINA COMPANEEZ France 1972 Faustine et le bel ete.
JULEEN COMPTON USA 1967 Stranded; The Plastic Dome Of Norma Jean.
NANCY FORD CONES USA All animation; co-d : James Cones: 1934 Farm Scenes; Goldilocks and the Bears; Hansel and Gretel; Janie and Jimmie and Their Little Sister; Sheep.
JANE CONGER USA 1957 Logos (short); Odds and Ends (short).
GRACE CUNARD (nee Harriet Mildred Jeffries) USA (1893- ) All starring herself; all Universal: 1915 Broken Coin (serial-22 chapters) co-d : Francis Ford al so co-scr; 1916 The Power Trail (short) also scr; Peg O’the Ring (serial-15 chapters) co-d : F.F. also scr; The Purple Mask (serial-16 chapters) co-d : F.F. also co-scr; 1917 The Puzzle co-d : F.F. also co-scr; The Unmarked (short).
HELENE DASSONVILLE France (1928- ) Undetermined number of shorts including: Moi Ie Chien ; De Marbre et d’Amour; L’Abominable Homme des Pistes; S.O.S. Avalanche; Glaces Eternelles; Premiere Course ; Le Pilier de la Solitude; Les Hydrocephales; La Generation du Desert; Le Tapis Volant; Vel d’Hiv’
STORM DE HIRSCH USA 1963 Journey Around a Zero (short) ; 1964 Goodbye In the Mirror (in Italy); Divinations (short); 1965 Peyote Queen (short); Trap Dance (short); 1966 Shaman, A Tapestry For Sorcerers (short); Newsreel: Jonas In the Brig (short); Sing Lotus (short); Cayuga Run. Hudson River Diary: Book I (short); 1968 Third Eye Butterfly (short); 1969 The Tattooed Man (short); 1971 An Experiment In Meditation (short).
LUCIE DERAIN France 1928 Harmonies de Paris (short).
MAYA DEREN USA (1917-1961) All shorts: 1943 Meshes Of the Afternoon co-d: Alexander Hackenschmied; The Witch ‘s Cradle (unfinished); 1944 At Land ; 1945 Study In Choreography For Camera; 1946 Ritual In Transfigured Time; 1948 Meditation On Violence; 1959 The Very Eye Of Night.
SUZANNE DEVOYOD France 1918 L’Ami Fritz co-d : Rene Hervil.
MRS. SIDNEY DREW (nee: Lucille McVey) USA (1890- ) Mostly uncredited, she supervised the Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Drew comedies starring herself and Mr. Drew, all shorts, all co-scr: 1917 A Close Resemblance Metro; Her Anniversaries Metro; Her Lesson Metro; His Curiosity Metro; The Pest Metro; Lest We Forget Metro; Rubbing It In Metro; Shadowing Henry Metro; Safety First Metro; Too Much Henry Metro; The Patriot Metro; 1918 Before and After Talking Metro; His First Love Metro; Special Today Metro; Why Henry Left Home Metro; Gas Logic Metro; Help Wanted Metro; 1919 Once a Man Paramount; Romance and Ringo Par; BunkeredPar; Squawed Par; Gay Old Time Par; then: 1920 Emotional Mrs. Vaughan Pathe (short) cast: Mrs. Drew; Stimulating Mrs. Barton Pathe (short); 1921 Cousin Kate Vitagraph cast: Alice Joyce.
LILIAN DUCEY USA 1919 Upstairs and Down Selznick also scr; 1921 In the Heart Of a Fool First National also scr; The Scoffer First National also scr; 1923 Enemies Of Children Mammoth also scr; 1924 The Lullaby First National also scr; 1927 The Worry Columbia also scr; 1929 Behind Closed Doors Columbia also scr.
GERMAINE DULAC (nee Charlotte-Elisabeth-Germaine Saisset-Schneider) France (1882-1942) (film lengths not indicated) 1915 Les Soeurs Ennemies; 1916 Geo Ie Mysterieux; Venus Victri x; Dans l’Ouragan de la Vie; 1917 Ames de Fous also scr; 1918 Le Bonheur des Autres; 1919 La Fete Espagnole; La Cigarette also co-scr; 1920 Malencontre; La Belle Dame Sans Merci ; 1921 La Mort du Soleil; 1922 Werther (unfinished) also scr; 1923 La Souriante Madame Beudet [The Smiling Madame Beudet] also scr; Gossette; 1924 Le Diable dans la Ville; 1925 Ame d’Artiste also co-scr; La Folie des Vaillants also scr; 1926 Antoinette Sabrier also scr; 1927 La Coquille et Ie Clergyman [The Seashell and the Clergyman]; L’lnvitation au Voyage also scr; Le Cinema au Service de I’Histoire (documentary); 1928 La Princesse Mandane also scr; Disque 927; Themes et Variations; Germination d’un Haricot (documentary); Mon Paris (supervisor) co-d : Albert Guyet; 1929 Etude Cinegraphique sur une Arabesque; 1930 Les 24 Heures du Mans (documentary); 1932 Le Picador (supervisor) co-d: Jaquelux; newsreels (France-Actualities); 1937 Le Cinema au Service de I’Histoire (documentary).
MARGUERITE DURAS (nee Marguerite Donnadieu) France (1914- ) 1966 La Musica co-d : Paul Seban also scr cast: Delphine Seyrig; 1969 Detruire dit-elle [Destroy, She Said] also scr; 1971 Abahn Sabana David also scr; 1972 Nathalie Granger also scr cast: Jeanne Moreau.
ALICE EKLUND Sweden (1896- ) 1936 Flickorna Pa Uppakra co-d : Lorens Marmstedt.
JUDIT ElEK Hungary (1937- ) 1963 Meeting (short) also scr; 1966 Occupants Of Manor Houses (short) also scr; 1967 How Long Does Man Matter? Parts 1 & 2 (shorts) also scr; 1968 The Lady From Constantinople.
GRACE ELLIOTT USA All shorts; all for Jesse Wei/ Productions: 1931 The Three Racketeers; Ten Thousand and Broke; Him Who Has; Marriage A La Carte ; The Spice Of Life; Devil ‘s Marriage; Man About Town; Splurge.
MARIE EPSTEIN France 1929 Peau de Peche co-d: Jean Benoit-Levy; 1933 La Maternelle co-d : J .B.-L. also co-scr; 1934-37 Helene (short) co-d : J.B.-L. Altitude 3200 (short) co-d : J .B.-L.; La Mort du Cygne; 1953 La Grande Esperance (documentary) co-d; Leonide Azar.
KARIN FALCK Sweden (1932- 1964) Drompojken.
MARY FIELD Great Britain (1896- ) At first documentaries; co-d: H. Bruce Woolfe and Percy Smith ; then : 1926 Secrets Of Nature (series); 1931 Strictly Business (co-d) cast: Jacqueline Logan; 1934 This Was England (short); Secrets Of Life (series); King ‘s English (short); The Changing Year (short); 1938 They Made the Land (short); Shadow Of the Stream (short); Babes In the Wood (short); 1940 The Medieval Village (short); 1941 Winged Messengers (short); 1944 I Married a Stranger (short).
SANDRA FRANCHINA Italy 1969 Morire Gratis.
YONA FRIEDMAN France All animation : 1961 Les Gazelles co-d : Denise Charvein ; Sedimwe co-d: D.C.; La Hyene et Ie Chat Sauvage co-d: D.C.; 1962 Les Aventures de Samba Gana; L’Origine des Kabouloukou; then: television.
KATJA GEORGI East Germany (1928- ) All animation: c. 1958 Brave Hans co-d: Klaus Georgi ; 1959 The Princess and the Pea; The Devil’s Valley; 1961 The Pyramid ; 1962 Cigarette Charlie; Henry and His Chickens; Cloudiness; 1963 Matches; Musicians; 1964 The Statue In the Park; 1965 Good Day, Mr. H. co-d: K.G.; Concurrence; 1967 The Thorn; 1969 Der Gardinentraum.
LILLIAN GISH USA (1896- ) 1920 Remodeling Her Husband Paramount also scr cast: Dorothy Gish.
ELINOR GLYN Great Britain (1864-1943) 1930 Knowing Men; The Price Of Things.
ANNA GOBBI Italy Tre e due (short); 1967 Lo Scandalo also scr cast: Anouk Aimee.
LANA GOGOBERIDZE USSR 1962 Under the Same Sky also co-scr.
MILDRED GOLDSCHOLL USA All animation; co-d: Morton Goldscholl: 1956 Night Driving; 1957 Texoprint; 1958 Mag; 1960 Faces and Fortune; 1961 Shaping the World; 1962 Envelope Jive; 1963 Dissent Illusion; 1964 From A To Z; 1965 First Impression; Intergalactic Zoo; 1966 The Great Train Robbery; Pitter Patterns.
IVANKA GRUBCHEVA Bulgaria 1969 Moment Of Freedom (one segment: “I Want To Live” ); 1971 The Pack Of Wolves.
ALICE GUY France (1873- ) c. 1897 La Fee aux Choux; c. 1897-1906 Guy directed most, if not all fictional films produced by Gaumont, including: La Crinoline; Les Fredaines de Pierrette; J’ai un Hanneton dans mon Pantalon!; La Feve Enchantee; Charm ant Frou-frou; Demenagement 11 la Cloche de Bois; Lui; Le Fiance Ensorcele; Minuit; Le Noel de Pierrot; La legende de Saint-Nicolas; Faust et Mephisto; la Voiture Cellulaire; Ballet de Singes; 1903 les Apaches pas Veinards; 1904 Rapt d’Enfants par les Romanichels; Les Petits Reintres; Relubilitation; L’Assassinat du Courrier de Lyon; Le Bapteme de la Poupee; Les Petits Coupeurs de Bois Vert; 1905 Une Noce au Lac Saint-Fargeau; Esmeralda; 1906 La Vie du Christ; La Fee Printemps; La Premiere Cigarette; Descerte dans les Mines a Fumay; Mireille co-d: Louis Feuillade. 1906-07 approx. 100 Chronophone films including: Carmen; Manon; Mignon; le Couteau; Les Soeurs Mante Danseuses Mondaines; Les Ballets de l’Opera; Fanfan la Tulipe; La Vivandiere; Les Dragons de Villars; Madame Angot; Les Cloches de Corneville. Then to USA: 1910 A Child’s Sacrifice So/ax; Falling Leaves So/ax; 1912 Mignon So/ax; Hotel Honeymoon So/ax co-d: Menessier; The Million Dollar Robbery So/ax; The Sewer So/ax; Mickey’s Pal So/ax co-d: Edward Warren; The Yellow Traffic Soiax co-d: Herbert Blache; The Rogues Of Paris So/ax; The Beasts Of the Jungle So/ax; Fra Diavolo So/ax; 1913 Kelly From the Emerald Isle So/ax; The Pit and the Pendulum So/ax; Dick Whittington and His Cat So/ax; The Shadows Of the Moulin Rouge So/ax; In the Year 2000 So/ax; Fortune Hunters a/ache; The Star Of India a/ache; 1914 The Dream Woman a/ache; The Monster and the Girl a/ache; The Woman Of Mystery a/ache; Fighting Death a/ache; Beneath the Czar a/ache; 1914-17 The Tigress Popular Players & Plays; Michael Strogoff PP&P; The Ragged Earl PP&P; House Of Cards PP&P, What Will People Say? PP&P; My Madonna PP&P The Sea Wolf PP&P; 1917 The Adventurer U.S. Amusement Corporation; The Empress USAC; A Man and the Woman USAC; 1918 The Great Adventure Pathe cast: Bessie Love; 1920 Tarnished Reputations Pathe.
LIVIA GYARMATHY Hungary 1966 58 Seconds (short) also scr; 1967 Message (documentary) also scr; 1969 Do You Know Sunday-Monday? also co-scr.
ASTRID HENNING-JENSEN Denmark (1914- ) 1940-42 Paper (short) co-d: Bjarne Henning-Jensen; Sugar (short) co-d: B. H-J .; The Foal (short) co-d: B. H-J.; 1943 When You Are Only Young co-d : B. H-J .; 1946 Ditte, Daughter Of Man co-d: B. H-J. ; 1951 Mr, Krane’s Tearoom (in Norway); 1952 The Unknown (in Norway); 1954 Children Of the Ballet (documentary); 1966 Infidelity cast: Anita Bjork; 1967 My Grandfather Is a Cane.
ANNA HOFFMAN-UDDGREN Sweden (1868-1947) 1911 Blott en Drom; Stockholmsfrestelser; Stockholmsdamernas; 1912 Systrarna; Miss Julie; Fadren.
ANNELISE HOVMAND Denmark (1926- ) c. 1955 Why Does the Child Steal? (short) co-d: Finn Methling; 1957 No Time For Love; 1958 Gunpowder and Gimcracks; 1960 The Price Of Liberty; 1961 The Champion Teetotaler; 1964 Sextet cast: Ingrid Thulin.
MARIE-LOUISE IRIBE France ( -1930) 1928 Hara-Kiri also actress.
JULIA CRAWFORD IVERS USA 1923 The White Flower Famous Players-Lasky also scr cast: Betty Compson.
WANDA JAKUBOWSKA Poland (1907- ) Co-directed numerous documentaries during the Thirties, including: 1932 Autumn Impressions; The Sea; 1933 We Are Building; then: 1934 Awakening co-d: Alexander Ford; 1938 Edison Street (short); 1939 On the Niemen River co-d: K. Szolowski; 1948 The Last Stage also co-scr; 1953 Soldier Of Victory also scr; 1955 An Atlantic Story; 1957 Farewell To the Devil also co-scr; 1958 King Matthew I also co-scr; 1960 Encounters In the Dark also co-scr; A Modern Story; 1964 The End Of Our World; 1965 The Hot Line; 1966 The Big Wood.
SYLVIE JALLAUD France All shorts; co-d: Pierre Jallaud: 1953 Des Maisons et des Hommes; 1954 Donjere-Mondragon; 1955 Fleuve-Dieu; 1956 Spirales; 1958 L’age des Cavavelles; Journal d’un Certain David; 1960 47, rue Vieille-du-Temple; 1961 Comme un Reflet d’Oiseau.
WINFRIED JUNGE East Germany (1935- ) Incomplete; unless otherwise noted, all documentaries: 1960 Until Man Came; 1961 The Ape Terror; Wait Until I Go To School; 1962 After One Year; 1963 Holidays; 1965 Girl Students-Impressions Of a Technical College; 1966 Eleven Years Old; 1967 The Brave Truants (feature); 1968 With Both Legs In the Sky.
MARIA KANIEWSKA Poland 1954 Not Far From Warsaw; 1959 Much Ado About Little Basia also co-scr; 1960 The Imp of the Seventh Grade also co-scr; 1962 On the Threshold Of Art; 1964 Panienka z Okienka.
NELLY KAPLAN France (1934- ) 1956 Magirama co-d: Abel Gance; 1961 Gustave Moreau (documentary); Rudolphe Bresdin (documentary); 1963 Abel Gance, Hier et Demain (documentary); c. 1966 Papa, les Petits Bateaux (documentary); 1967 Le Regard Picasso [Eye Of Picasso] (documentary); c. 1968 Andre Masson (documentary); 1969 La Fiancee du Pirate [A Very Curious Girl] cast: Bernadette Lafont; Le Collier de Ptyx (projected).
ESTHER KRUMBACHOVA Czechoslovakia (1923- ) (1923- ) 1970 The Murder Of Mr. Devil also scr; 1971 Valerie and a Week of Wonders also scr.
EVELYN LAMBART Canada All animation: 1949 Begone Dull Care co-d: Norman McLaren; 1950 Family Tree; 1952 O Canada; 1956 Rythmetic co-d : N.McL.; 1959 Short and Suite co-d: N.McL. ; 1961 Lines-Vertical co-d: N.McL.; Lines-Horizintal co-d: N.McL.; 1965 Mosaic co-d : N.McL.; 1966 The Lever; 1968 Fine Feathers; 1969 The Hoarder; 1970 Paradise Lost; also sequences for World in Action and Maps in Action series.
MONIQUE LEPEUVE France All animation: 1960 La Chanson du Jardinier Fou; 1962 Concerto pour Violoncelle.
NAOMI LEVINE USA All shorts: 1964 Yes; Jeremelu; 1967 From Zero To 16; 1968 Optured Fraiken Chaitre Joe; 1969 Prismatic; Premoonptss; 1970 A Very Long Journey To Venus, Perhaps; I.A.I.a. London Bridges Falling Down; 1971 Zen + the Art Of Baseball.
HELEN LEVITT USA 1948-52 In the Street co-d: James Agee and Janice Loeb.
JOAN LITTLEWOOD Great Britain (1914- ) 1963 Sparrows Can’t Sing.
BARBARA LODEN USA (1936- ) 1971 Wanda also actress; Love Means Always Having to Say You’re Sorry (projected).
IDA LUPINO USA (1918- ) 1949 Not Wanted Film Classics co-d: Elmer Clifton cast: Sally Forrest; 1950 Never Fear Eagle Lion cast: Sally Forrest; Outrage RKO cast: Mala Powers; 1951 Hard, Fast & Beautiful RKO cast: Claire Trevor; 1953 The Bigamist Filmmakers Releasing Corporation cast: Edmond O’Brien, Joan Fontaine, Ida Lupino; The Hitchhiker RKO cast: Edmond O’Brien, Frank Lovejoy; 1956-64 many television series programs: Have Gun Will Travel, Laredo, Thriller, Mr. Novak, The Untouchables, Hong Kong; 1965 Wanted For Murder (TV) cast: Peter Lorre; 1966 The Trouble With Angels Columbia cast: Rosalind Russell; I Love Mystery (TV) cast: Don Knotts.
CLEO MADISON USA (1882-1964) 1915 Liquid Dynamite Universal; King Of Destiny Universal (short); 1916 Her Bitter Cup Universal; Chalice Of Sorrows Bluebird.
AIDA MANASAROVA USSR 1962 The Trial co-d: Vladimir Skuibin.
CECILIA MANGINI Italy (1927- ) 1961 All’armi siam fascisti (co-dir); 1963 Processo a Stalin (co-dir); 1964 Essere donne (short).
MARTA MARCZAKOWIE Poland 1949 Grzyby co-d: Karol Marczakowie.
FRANCES MARION USA (1890- ) 1921 The Love Light United Artists also scr cast: Mary Pickford; 1922 Just Around the Corner Paramount also scr cast: Fred Thomson; 1924 The Song Of Love Schenck-First National co-d: Chester M. Franklin also scr cast: Norma Talmadge.
ELAINE MAY USA (1932- ) 1970 A New Leaf Paramount also scr cast: Elaine May, Walter Matthau; 1972 Heartbreak Kid Fox cast: Charles Grodin, Cybill Shepherd.
NINA MAYO France All animation; co-d : Arie Mambouch: 1957 Le Desert Chante; 1958 Le Cercle; 1959 Le Tapis Volant; 1961 L’Arbre; 1962 Les Six Jours de la Creation.
LORENZA MAZETTI Italy All shorts and all in Great Britain: Metamorphosis; 1956 Together (documentary); 1961 Accused Women.
VERA MCCORD USA (1876-1949) 1920 Good Bad Wife Film Booking Office.
MARIE MENKEN USA (1909-1970) All shorts: 1945 Visual Variations On Noguchi; 1957 Hurry! Hurry!; Glimpse Of the Garden; 1959 Dwightiana; 1960 Faucets; 1961 Eye Music In Red Major; Arabesque For Kenneth Anger; Bagatelle For Willard Maas; 1962 Zenscapes (unfinished); Moonplay (unfinished); 1963 Notebook; Mood Mondrian; 1964 Wrestling; Go Go Go; 1965 Drips In Strips; Andy Warhol; Andy Warhol: Silent Version; 1966 Lights (unfinished); Sidewalks (unfinished); 1968 Excursion; 1969 Watts With Eggs.
MARTA MESZAROS Hungary (1931- ) 1954 They Smile Again (short); 1955 A History Of Albertfalva (short); Beyond the Calvin Square (short); 1960 It Also Depends On Us (short); 1961 Heartbeat (short); The Colors Of Vasarhely (short); 1962 Janos Tornyai (short); Children-Books (short); 1963 Saturday, 27th July 1963 (short); Care and Affection (short); 1964 Blow-ball (medium length); The Town Of Painters (short); Socialist Artists In Fine Arts 1934-1944 (short); 1965 15 Minutes About 15 Years (short); 1966 The City Of Bells (short); Miklos Borsos (short); 1967 The Girl also scr; 1968 Binding Sentiments also scr; 1970 Don’t Cry, Pretty Girls also scr.
NINA MOISE USA 1934 Cradle Song Paramount co-d: Mitchell Leisen cast: Dorothea Wieck.
ZET MOLAS (nee Zdenka Smolova) Czechoslovakia 1923 Zavet Podivinova; 1927 Old House; c. 1930 The Miller and His Sons; 1937 Karel Hynek Macha.
JANE MURFIN USA (1893-1955) 1924 Flapper Wives Selznick co-d: Justin H. McCloskey also scr cast: May Allison, Rockliffe Fellows; Love Master First National co-d: Laurence Trimble also co-scr cast: Lillian Rich, Harold Austin .
MUSIDORA (nee Jeanne Roques) France (1889-1957) 1918 Vioenta also scr, actress; 1920-23 La Flamme Cachee also actress; Pour Don Carlos also actress; Soleil et Ombre also actress; 1924 La Terre des Taureaux (in Spain); 1926 Le Berceau de Dieu; 1951 La Magique Image (documentary).
AIMEE NAVARRA Belgium 1918 Coeurs Belges (short).
ALLA NAZIMOVA (nee Alia Nazimoff) (1879-1945) 1923 Salome (uncredited) also actress.
FRANCES NORDSTROM USA 1925 Her Market Value Producers Distribution Corporation.
MABEL NORMAND USA (1894-1930) All starring herself; all shorts; all Keystone: 1914 Mabel’s Strange Predicament cast: Charles Chaplin; Love and Gasoline; Mabel at the Wheel cast: Charles Chaplin, Mack Sennett; Caught in a Cabaret co-d: Chaplin cast: Charles Chaplin; Mabel’s Busy Day co-d: Chaplin cast: Charles Chaplin; Mabel’s Married Life co-d: Chaplin cast: Charles Chaplin; Won In a Closet; Mabel’s Bare Escape.
ALICE O’FREDERICKS Great Britain (1900- ) 1938 Julia Jubilerar (in Sweden) co-d: Lau Lauritzen; 1950 Suffering Of a Child (in Denmark).
RUTH ORKIN USA All co-d: Morris Engel: 1953 The Little Fugitive; 1955 Lovers and Lollipops; 1958 Weddings and Babies.
RENEE ORO Argentina c. 1930 Argentina (co-dir).
RUTH BRYAN OWEN USA 1921 Once Upon a Time Bollman also actress.
IDA MAY PARK USA 1913 Simple Pool Universal (short) co-d: Joseph de Grasse; 1916 The Tangled Hearts Bluebird; 1917 The Rescue Bluebird also scr; The Fires Of Rebellion Bluebird co-d : J. deG.; Bondage Bluebird also scr; 1918 Broadway Love Bluebird also scr; The Grand Passion Jewel also scr; Risky Road U also scr; The Model’s Confession U also scr; Bread U also scr; 1919 Amazing Wife U also scr; Vanity Pool U also scr; 1920 The Butterfly Man R.e. also scr; Bonnie May Federated co-d: J.deG. cast: Bessie Love; The Midlanders Federated co-d : J .deG. cast: Bessie Love; Penny Of Top Hill Trail Federated co-d: J.deG. cast: Bessie Love.
CLAIRE PARKER USA All animation in France; co-d: Alexandre Alexeieff: 1934 La nuit sur le Mont Chauve; then: La Belle au Bois Dormant; Parade des Chapeaux; Le Trone de France; Masques; Nocturne; Le Buisson Ardent; Seve de la Terre.
EWA PETELSKA Poland (1920- ) 1953 Three Stories (one episode) also scr; 1955 Three Starts (one episode) also scr; 1957 Sunken Ships co-d: Czeslaw Petelski also co-scr; 1959 The Sky is our Roof co-d : C.P. also co-scr; 1961 Master Sergeant Kalen co-d: C.P. also co-scr; 1962 Black Wings co-d: C.P.; 1963 The Beater co-d: C.P.; 1965 The Wooden Rosary co-d : C.P.; 1966 Don Gabriel co-d : C.P.; 1967 A Matter Of Conscience co-d: C.P.; 1969 Empty Eyes co-d: C.P.
VERA PLIVOVA-SIMKOVA USSR 1970 Mice, Foxes and Gallowshill also scr.
MIMI POLLAK Sweden (1903- ) 1956 Ratten Att Alska.
IRINA POPAVSKAYA USSR 1959 Revenge.
OLGA PREOBRAZHENSKAYA USSR (1885- ) 1916 Miss Peasant also scr: c. 1922 Kashtanka; 1923 Locksmith and Chancellor co-d: Vladimir Gardin; 1928 Women Of Ryazan co-d: Ivan Pravov; 1929 The Last Attraction; 1931 The Quiet Don co-d: I.P. also scr; 1935 Paths Of Enemies co-d; I.P .; 1936 Grain co-d: I.P .; 1941 Children of Taiga co-d: I.P.
HEDVIKA RAABE OVA Czechoslovakia 1919 Ada (short).
NATALYA RASHEVSKAYA USSR 1959 Dostigayev and Others co-d: Yu. Muzikant also co-scr; 1960 Fathers and Sons co-d: Adolf Bergunkev also co-scr.
MRS. WALLACE REID (Dorothy Davenport) USA (1895- ) 1923 Human Wreckage Film Booking Office cast: Dorothy Davenport, Bessie Love; Quicksands Selznick; 1929 Linda First Division cast: Warner Baxter; 1933 Sucker Money KET (signed Dorothy Reid); 1934 Road to Ruin True Life co-d: Melville Shirer cast: Helen Foster, Mae Busch; Woman Condemned Marcy cast: Claudia Dell, Lola Lane.
LOTTE REINIGER Germany (1899- ) All animation: 1918 Pied Piper Of Hamelin (d: Paul Wegener) title vignettes only; 1919-20 Das Ornament des Verliebten Herzens (short); 1920-22 Der Amor und das Standhafte Liebespaar (short); Der fliegende Koffer (short); Der Stern von Bethlehem (short); Aschenputtel (short); 1922 The Sleeping Beauty; 1923-26 Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Achmed; 1928 Die Abenteuer des Dr. Dolittle (3 shorts); 1930 Die Jagd Nach dem Gluck (silhouette segment within live-action film); Zehn Minuten Mozart (short); 1931 Harlequin; 1932 Sissy; 1933 Carmen (short); 1934 Das Rollende Rad (short); Das Gestchlene Herz (short); Der Graf von Carabas (short); Puss-in-Boots (short); 1935 Papagono (short); Galathea (short); Kalif Starch (short); Der Kleine Schornsteinfeger (short); 1936 Silhouetter; 1937 The King’s Breakfast (in Great Britain ); 1938 La Marseillaise (d: Jean Renoir) (shadow play within live-action film ); 1940 L’Elisir d’Amore (unfinished) ; 1944 The Golden Goose (unfinished); then (in Great Britain): 1949 The Daughter; Mary’s Birthday; 1952-56 (shorts) The Sleeping Beauty; The Grasshopper and the Ant; Calif Storch; Hansel & Gretel; The Chimney Sweep; Thumbelina; The Frog Prince; Cinderella; Puss-in-Boots; Papagino; Jack and the Beanstalk; The Gallant Little Tailor; The Three Wishes; Snow White; The Star Of Bethlehem; Aladdin; 1958 La Belle Helene; The Seraglio.
LENI RIEFENSTAHL (nee Helene Bertha Amalie Riefenstahl) Germany (1902- ) 1932 Das Blaue Licht [The Blue Light] also co-scr, actress; 1933 Sieg des Glaubens (documentary); 1934 Tiefland co-d: Alfred Abel also scr, actress; 1935 Triumph des Willens [Triumph Of The Will] (documentary); Tag der Freiheit-unsere Wehrmacht (documentary); 1938 Olympia, Parts I & II (documentary); 1939 Penthesilea also scr (unfinished); Driegswochenschauen (unfinished); 1943 Van Gogh (unfinished); 1952 Das Blaue Licht (from 1932 version, unfinished); 1954 Tiefland co-d : G. W. Pabst also co-scr, actress; Die Roten Teufel also co-scr cast: Vittorio de Sica, Brigitte Bardot (unfinished); Ewige Gipfel (unfinished); 1955 Friedrich and Voltaire (unfinished); Drei Sterne am Mantel der Madonna cast: Anna Magnani (unfinished); 1956 Schwarze Fracht also actress (documentary); 1960 The Blue Light also co-scr (new version, unfinished); Nuba (projected documentary).
MARGARETA ROSENCRANTZ Sweden (1901- ) 1949 Kuckelikaka (medium length).
BARBARA RUBIN USA (1945- ) All shorts: 1964 Christmas On Earth; 1965 The Day the Byrds Flew Into the Factory and I Went Out; Christmas On Earth Continued; 1966 Allen For Allen, London, Is Peter.
BEVERLY C. RULE USA 1920 Mystery Of Washington Square Fidelity.
LEONTINE SAGAN Austria (1899- 1931 Mädchen in Uniform (in Germany) cast: Dorothea Wieck; 1932 Men Of Tomorrow (in Great Britain) cast: Robert Donat, Merle Oberon.
ESTHER SHUB USSR (1894-1959) All documentaries: 1927 Fall Of the Romanov Dynasty also scr; The Great Road also scr; 1928 The Russia Of Nikolai II and Lev Tolstoy also scr; 1930 Today; 1932 Komsomol; 1934 The Subway At Night; 1937 The Soviets’ Land; 1939 Spain; 1940 20 Years Of Soviet Cinema co-d : V.I. Pudovkin; 1941 The Face Of the Enemy; 1947 Sideways To Arax.
DINAH SHUREY Great Britain 1927 Carry On; 1929 Last Post also co-scr.
ANNA SOKOLOWSKA Poland 1965 Beata.
JULIA SOLNTSEVA USSR (1901- ) 1939 Shchors co-d: Alexander Dovzhenko; 1940 Liberation co-d: A.D.; 1943 The Fight For Our Soviet Ukraine co-d : Y. Avdeyenko and A.D.; 1945 Victory In the Ukraine and the Expulsion Of the Germans From the Boundaries Of the Ukrainian Soviet Earth co-d : A.D.; 1947 Nichurin co-d : A.D.; 1953 Igor Bulichov; 1954 Unwilling Inspectors; 1958 Poem Of the Sea; 1960 The Flaming Years; 1964 The Enchanted Desna; 1969 Unforgettable.
SUSAN SONTAG USA (1933- ) 1969 Duet For Cannibals (in Sweden) cast: Adriana Asti ; 1971 Brother Karl (in Sweden) cast: Gunnel Lindblom.
RUTH STONEHOUSE USA (1894-1941) All shorts; all starring herself; all Universal: 1916 The Heart Of Mary Ann also co-scr; Mary Ann In Society also co-scr; 1917 Dorothy Dares; The Stolen Actress; Puppy Love also scr; Cocky Sue’s Romance; A Walloping Time also co-scr; The Lies Of Satin; Dividend Dan also scr.
VERA STROYEVA USSR (1903- ) 1934 Petersburg Night co-d: Grigori Roshal; 1936 Generation Of Conquerers [Revolutionists] co-d: G.R.; c. 1940-45 indefinite number of shorts (in Tadzhik SSR); 1947 Marite; 1951 The Grand Concert; 1955 Boris Godounov; 1959 Khovanshchina also co-scr.
KARIN SWANSTROM Sweden (1873-1942) All starring herself: 1923 Boman Pa Utstallningen co-d: Oscar Rydquist; 1925 Kalle Utter; Flygande Hollandaren; 1926 Flickan I Frack.
MARIANNE SZEMES Hungary (1924- ) 1957 I Shall Be a Seaman (short) also scr; Travel Notes On Egypt (documentary) also scr; 1960-62 newsreels; 1963 Three Clouds Of White Smoke (documentary); 1964 Divorce In Budapest (documentary); Exams and Confessions (documentary); 1965 Pilgrimage (documentary); 1966 Women Will Do Everything (documentary); 1967 It’s So Simple (documentary) also scr; 1968 I Am Angry For Your Sake (documentary) also scr; 1969 I Do What I Like also scr.
MARGARET THOMPSON Great Britain. 1952 Child’s Play.
INGRID THULIN Sweden (1929- ) 1964 Devotion (short) also actress.
WENDY TOYE Great Britain (1917- ) 1953 The Stranger Left No Card (short); 1954 The Teckman Mystery cast: Margaret Leighton; 1955 Three Cases Of Murder (one episode); Raising a Riot cast: Kenneth More; All For Mary cast: Nigel Patrick; 1956 On the Twelfth Day (short); 1957 True As a Turtle cast: John Gregson; 1962 We Joined the Navy cast: Dirk Bogarde, Kenneth More; 1963 The King’s Breakfast (short).
NADINE TRINTIGNANT France (1934- ) 1956 Fragilite, Ton Nom Est Femme (short); 1967 Mon Amour, Mon Amour cast: Jean-Louis Trintignant, Michel Piccoli; 1969 Le Voleur de Crimes cast: Jean-Louis Trintignant; 1971 Ca n’Arrive qu’aux Autres [It Only Happens To Others] cast: Catherine Deneuve, Marcello Mastroianni.
MAY TULLY USA (c. 1885-1924) 1921 The Old Broken Bucket Film Booking Office; 1922 Our Mutual Friend FBO; Kisses Metro co-d: M. Karger; 1926 That Old Gang Of Mine Kerman.
HERMINA TYRLOVA Czechoslovakia (1900- ) Incomplete; All animation: 1941 Ferda the Ant; 1947 The Revolt Of the Toys; 1948 Lullaby; 1951 The Misfit; 1952 Nine Chicks; 1953 The Taming Of the Dragon; 1956 The Naughty Ball; A Garland Of Folk Songs; Goldilocks; 1957 The Swine Herdsman; Lazy Martin; 1959 The Lost Doll; The Little Train; The Knot In the Handkerchief; 1960 A Lesson; 1961 The Lost Letter; 1962 Two Balls Of Wool; 1963 The Marble; 1965 The Blue Pinafore; 1966 The Snowman; Boy Or Girl?; 1967 Dog’s Heaven; Christmas Tree; 1969 The Star Of Bethlehem; 1970 The Glass Whistle; Little Paintings.
OLGA ULITSKAYA USSR 1960 Ataman Kodr co-d: M.Kalik and B. Ritsarev.
WALENTYNA USZYCKA Poland 1957 End of Night co-d: J. Dziedzina & P. Komorowski .
AGNES VARDA France (1928- ) 1955 La Pointe-Courte (medium length) cast: Silvia Monfort; 1957 0 Saisons 0 Chateaux (short); 1958 Opera Mouffe (short) cast: Dorothee Blank; Du Cote de la Cote (short) 1959 La Cocotte d’Azur (short); 1961 Les Fiances du Pont MacDonald (short); 1962 Cleo de Cinq a Sept [Cleo From 5 to 7] cast: Corinne Marchand; 1963 Salut les Cubains! (documentary); 1965 Le Bonheur cast: Marie-France Boyer; 1966 Elsa (documentary); Les Creatures cast: Catherine Deneuve, Michel Piccoli; 1967 Oncle Janco (in USA) (short); 1969 Lions Love (in USA) cast: Viva, Shirley Clarke; Black Panthers (in USA) (documentary).
JUDIT VAS Hungary (1932- ) All shorts: 1960 Polarised Light; 1962 Who Can Carry On Any Longer?; 1965 Circadian Rhythms; Bobe; 1966 Where Are You Going?; 1967 Who Is Your Friend?; Trio.
NICOLE VEDRES France (1911-1965) 1947 Paris 1900 also scr; 1950 La Vie Commence Demain [Life Begins Tomorrow] cast: Andre Gide, Picasso, J.P. Sartre; 1951 Amazone (short); 1953 Aux Frontieres de I’Homme (short) co-d: Jean Rostand .
MARGUERITE VIEL Czechoslovakia 1929 The Jungle Of a Great City co-d: Leo Marten; then to France: La Banque Nemo; Occupe-toi d’Amelie! co-d: Rene Weissbach.
THEA VON HARBOU Germany (1888-1954) 1933 Elisabeth und der Narr; 1934 Hanneles Himmelfahrt also scr.
MILDRED WEBB USA 1922 Where Is My Wandering Boy Tonight? Equity-SR co-d: J.P. Hogan cast: Cullen Landis.
LOIS WEBER USA (1882-1939) 1913 The Eyes Of God Bluebird; The Jew’s Christmas Rex co-d: Phillip Smalley also scr; 1914 The Merchant Of Venice Universal co-d: P .S. also co-scr, actress; Traitor Bosworth also scr; Like Most Wives Bosworth also scr; The Hypocrites Bosworth also scr; False Colours Bosworth also scr; It’s No Laughing Matter also scr; 1915 Sunshine Molly Bosworth also scr; A Cigarette, That’s All Gold Seal also co-sc r; Scandal U (feature) co-d: P.S. also scr; 1916 Discontent Gold Seal (short) also scr; Hop, the Devil Brew Bluebird also scr; Where Are My Children? U also co-scr; The French Downstairs U; Alone In the World U (short) co-d: P .S. also co-scr; The People Vs. John Doe U also scr; The Rock Of Riches Special-Rex (short) co-d: P.S. also scr; John Needham’s Double Bluebird; Saving the Family Name Bluebird co-d: P.S. also actress; Shoes Bluebird also co-scr; The Dumb Girl Of Portici U also scr cast: Anna Pavlova; 1917 The Hand That Rocks the Cradle U co-d: P.S .; Even As You and I U; The Mysterious Mrs. M Bluebird; The Price Of a Good Time Universal-Jewel cast: Mildred Harris; The Man Who Dared God U; There’s No Place Like Home U; For Husbands Only U-Jewel cast: Mildred Harris; 1918 The Doctor and the Woman U-Jewel also scr cast: Mildred Harris; Borrowed Clothes U cast: Mildred Harris; 1919 When a Girl Loves U also scr cast: Mildred Harris; Mary Regan First National also co-scr cast: Anita Stewart; Midnight Romance First National also co-scr cast: Anita Stewart; Scandal Managers U also scr; Home U also scr cast: Mildred Harris; Forbidden U also co-scr cast: Mildred Harris; 1921 Too Wise Wives Paramount also co-scr cast: Claire Windsor; What’s Worth While? Paramount also scr cast: Claire Windsor; To Please One Woman Paramount also scr cast: Claire Windsor; The Blot Film-Booking Warren also scr cast: Claire Windsor; What Do Men Want? Film Booking Office also scr cast: Claire Windsor; 1923 A Chapter In Her Life U-Jewel also scr cast: Jane Mercer; 1926 The Marriage Clause U-Jewel also scr cast: Billie Dove, Francis X. Bushman; 1927 Sensation Seekers U also scr cast: Billie Dove; The Angel Of Broadway Pathe cast: Leatrice Joy; 1934 White Heat Pinnacle cast: Virginia Cherrill, Mona Maris.
LINA WERTMULLER (nee Arcangela Wertmuller von Elgg) Italy (1928- ) 19631 Basilischi [The Lizards] also scr; 1964 Non stuzzicate la zanzara (s hort); 1967 Giornalino de Gian Burrasca (short); 1968 Due e due non fa piu quartro co-d: Franco Zeffirelli. Then television. 1972 Mimi also scr.
JOYCE WIELAND Canada 1963 Larry’s Recent Behavior (short); 1964 Peggy’s Blue Skylight (short); Patriotism, Part I and Part II (shorts ); 1965 Water Sark (short); Barbara’s Blindness (short) co-d: Betty Ferguson; 1967 Sailboat (short); Hand Tinting (short); 1968 1932 (short); Catfood (short); Rat Life and Diet In North America (short); 1969 La Raison Avant la Passion [Reason Over Passion] ; Dripping Water (short) co-d: Michael Snow; True Patriot Love (projected).
ELSIE JANE WILSON USA 1915 Donna Perfecta Universal; 1916 The Human Catos Bluebird; 1917 The Little Pirate Butterfly; The Cricket U; My Little Boy Bluebird; The Silent Lady U; 1918 New Love For Old Bluebird; Beauty in Chains U; City Of Tears Bluebird; The Dream Lady Bluebird; 1919 The Lure Of Luxury Bluebird; The Game’s Up U.
MARGERY WILSON (nee Sara Barker Strayer) USA (1898- ) 1921 That Something Herman co-d: Lawrence Underwood also actress.
MAI ZETTERLING Sweden (1925- ) 1960 The Polite Invasion (in Great Britain) (documentary); 1961 Lords Of Little Egypt (in Great Britain) (documentary); 1962 The Prosperity Race (in Great Britain) (documentary); The War Game (in Great Britain) (short); 1963 The Do-It-Yourself Democracy (in Great Britain) (documentary); 1964 Loving Couples cast: Harriet Andersson, Anita Bjork; 1966 Night Games cast: Ingrid Thulin; 1968 Doctor Glas cast: Per Oscarsson; The Girls cast: Harriet Andersson, Bibi Andersson ; 1971 Van Gogh (in Great Britain) (documentary).
BINKA ZHELJAZKOVA Bulgaria (1923- ) 1960 When We Were Young; 1965 The Fastened Balloon.
Richard Henshaw has taught film history at Antioch College, studied cinema extensively abroad, and is an expert on cinema literature. He was recently a panelist at the Festival of Women’s Films in New York.
Seeing is believing: a clinical approach to sound and spacial construction in Jonathan Glazer’s new film, The Zone of Interest, opens up important questions about the ethical implications of aesthetics
Here and elsewhere: the philosopher-turned-filmmaker joins for a conversation about the making of his debut film, which explodes conventions of biography and nonfiction for a uniquely collective portrait of trans life
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